The City of Ankara
The Ankara region’s past reaches all the way back to prehistoric times. While there are several versions as to the origin of the name Ankara, it seems as though its historically recorded name has hardly changed ever since antiquity until our time: Ankyra (Ancyra), Angora, Enggürü and now Ankara.
After having remained within the borders of successively the Hittites, Phrygians, Kimmerians, Persians, Lydians, Macedonians, Galatians, Romans and Seljuks, the town was included in the Ottoman realm in 1354, by the son of Orhan Gazi [Gazi=Veteran Fighter of the Faith, Orhan Gazi was the Ottoman sovereign, † 1362], Süleyman Pasha [Pasha=Commander]. In 1902, the Province of Ankara included 5 sanjaks and 21 kazas [sanjak and kaza are subdivisions of an Ottoman province], but in 1924 the sanjaks were abolished according to the Bill on the Principles of Organization and thus the sanjaks of Kayseri, Yozgat, Kirsehir, and Çorum were elevated to province status and thus separated from the Province of Ankara.
Ankara, where the planning for the Liberation War and preparations for the founding of the Republic took place, holds a special significance in our recent history. After he had chosen Ankara as headquarters to conduct the proceedings of the Representative Body, Mustafa Kemal was greeted with much enthusiasm upon arriving here on Dec. 27th, 1919. It was here that, from that day on, Mustafa Kemal started to form the foundations of the Turkish Republic. The town of Ankara, declared Capital on Oct. 13th, 1923, was from then on the scene of a rapid social, economical, political, military and cultural development.
Sites of Interest
Atatürk’s Mausoleum, Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo, Youth Park (Gençlik Parkı), Ankara Castle, Augustus Temple, Caracalla (Roman) Baths, Julianus Column, Alaeddin Mosque, Hacı Bayram Mosque, Aslanhane (Ahi Şerefaddin) Mosque, Ahi Elvan Mosque, Cenabı Ahmed Pasha Mosque, Ulus Republic Monument, Güven Monument, Victory Monument, new and old Parliament Buildings, Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, State Art and Sculpture Museum, Ethnography Museum, Çankaya Atatürk Museum, Natural History Museum, Çubuk Dam, Gölbaşı (lake area), Kızılcahamam Soğuksu National Park and hot springs, Ayaş Karakaya hot springs, Haymana hot springs, Gordion.
Ankara, which has been the cradle of the Anatolian Civilizations for ages, has been in a rapid social development and renewal especially in the aspect of cultural activities, after becoming the Capital City. In our province, which has been the resort of many civilizations from the Ancient Anatolian culture up to day, we see the deep effects of the developments in the traditions, conventions and culture more clearly in the rural areas.
The trend, which started with imitating the old Ottoman architecture especially in the Dikmen, Çankaya and Gazi Osman Paşa quarters of the province, transformed into modern architecture and pioneered the form and style of today’s contemporary Turkish architecture. Besides, the old mansions and houses in the Ankara Castle today still live almost without any changes.
In Ankara, there are about 30 official and private museums, 1 National Library with its renewed facilities, 43 public, 1 mobile and 1 children’s library. Moreover, many official and private organizations that address to national and international congress tourism keep alive the cultural activities. In our province, there are 343 associations and foundations performing cultural and art activities. There are 418 printing houses, 32 cinemas, 8 state theaters and 21 private theaters in our province.
Anatolian Civilizations Museum
The museum was established in 1921 and about 179.675 historical works of art are being exhibited. The Anatolian Civilizations Museum was awarded as “Museum of the Year in Europe” in 1997. In 1998, it ranked in the top five museums of the World. In 2002, 308.451 persons visited the museum.
The Gordion Museum, Rome Bath Ruins, Rome Theater Ruins, Haymana Gavur Castle Ruins and Agustus Temple are dependent to the Anatolian Civilizations Museum. The private museums under the supervision of this museum are MTA Natural History Museum, METU Museum, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Museum and the Meteorology Museum.
The Ethnography Museum
The museum was established in 1930 and 25.468 works of art are being exhibited. Hacı Bayram Veli Tomb, Karyağdı Sultan Tomb, Karacabey Tomb, Yörük Dede Tomb, İsmail Fazıl Paşa Tomb, Tacettin Tomb, Cenabı Ahmet Paşa Tomb, Ahi Şerafettin Tomb and Azimi Tomb are dependent to the Ethnography Museum. Toy Museum, AOÇ Atatürk’s House Museum, Girl’s Technical Education and Training Museum, National War Atatürk’s Residence and Museum, Private Atılım High School Museum, G.U. Vocational Education Faculty Education Museum and Çankaya Atatürk Museum are the private museums that are under the supervision of the Ethnography Museum.
The Museum of the Republic and The Liberation War Museum
The Museum of the Republic was established in 1981 and the Liberation War Museum was established in 1961. The museums were visited by 219.122 persons in 2001.
The Education Museum, TCDD Museum and Art Gallery, TCDD Open-air Locomotive Museum, PTT Museum, 100th Year Sports History Museum, The TRT Museum and Kırıkkale Silahsan Museum are private museums that carry out activities under the supervision of the Museum of the Republic and The Liberation War Museum.
Rail Public Transportation System
Ankaray Rail System: Ankaray of which construction started in 1992 and put into service in 1996, has 8.7 km double line length, 11 passenger stations and 33 vehicles (11 lines) line between Söğütözü(AŞTİ) and Dikimevi. Today, it has a capacity of 175.000 passenger/day (16.442 passenger/hour-direction). The passenger capacity is planned to reach to 554.000 passengers/day (20.158 passengers/hour-direction) in 2005.
METRO I. Stage Rail System: METRO I. Stage of which construction started in 1993 and put into service in 1997, has 14.6 km double line length, 12 passenger stations and 108 vehicles (18 lines) between Kızılay and Batıkent. Today, it has a capacity of 380.000 passenger/day (36.198 passenger/hour-direction). The passenger capacity is planned to reach to 639.000 passenger/day (46.214 passengers/hour-direction) in 2005.
METRO II. Stage Rail System: Kızılay-west corridor has been planned to have a capacity of 744.000 passenger/day (48.657 passengers/hour-direction) with 18.3 km double line length, 174 vehicles (29 lines), 16 passenger stations in order to meet high passenger demand. It will be constructed on an important highway providing the west exit of the city. The Project and documents have been completed and tender permission is being waited.
METRO III. Stage Rail System: The rail system route that has been planned as the continuity of the current Batıkent-Kızılay route of the Ankara metro is within the scope of the northwest corridor of the metropolis. It has also a capacity to provide the transportation to the Organized Industrial Area by passing through Eryaman, Fatih Quarter and Törekent Quarter from Batıkent Station to West.
The contract for the system that will have a capacity of about 218.000 passenger/day (18.611 passengers/hour-direction) with 11 passenger stations, 13,4 km double line length between Batıkent-Sincan has been awarded.
Bus and Public Transportation System
There are totally 1.855 single, folding and double deck buses (1.188 municipality buses and 667 private-public transportation buses) within the borders of Ankara Metropolitan, and the public transportation service is provided with a capacity of approximately 400.000 passenger/day in 273 lines (the longest line is 100 km).